Effect of barley straw treatments on desiccation shrinkage and thermal properties of lightweight sand concrete

M.S. Ammari, M. Bederina, B. Belhadj, M. Quéneudec


Abstract: This experimental work focuses on studying the effect of different barley straw treatments on the dimensional variation due to desiccation shrinkage, as well as the thermal properties of lightweight sand concrete. For this purpose, four methods of barley straw treatments have been used, such as waste oil, hot water, varnish and gasoil. In previous work, the optimal composition with untreated barley straw with the content of 15 kg / m3 has shown that the addition of straws alleviates the sand concrete and gives it acceptable thermal properties. Nevertheless, it has shown a remarkable increase in shrinkage. The objective of this study is to further improve the studied properties and therefore to target the best treatment. The results obtained showed an interesting reduction in the shrinkage in the case of hot water treatment, gasoil and varnish. Improvements in shrinkage have been achieved including a reduction of up to 21%. On the other hand, the treatment with the waste oil gave an increase of the shrinkage, compared to the concrete of sand based on untreated barley straw. It should be noted that even the thermal conductivity has been reduced where the reduction was about 40%. In fact, the straw treatments led to the increase of the Young's modulus and the tensile strength of the barley straw. Moreover, the study of X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed a slight difference between the concretes studied. Finally, a microscope visualization showed a good adhesion between the straw and the cement matrix.

Full Text:



Gotteicha, M. Characterization of sand concrete based on treated wood shavings. Memory of Magister, University of Laghouat, Algeria. (2005) (In French).

Bederina, M.; Gotteicha, M.; Belhadj, B.; Dheily, R.M.; Khenfer, M.M.; & Queneudec, M. Drying shrinkage studies of wood sand concrete–Effect of different wood treatments. Construction and Building Materials 36 (2012) 1066-1075.

Belhadj, B.; Bederina, M.; Montrelay, N.; Houessou, J.; & Quéneudec, M. Effect of substitution of wood shavings by barley straws on the physico-mechanical properties of lightweight sand concrete. Construction and Building Materials 66 (2014) 247-258.

Parisi, F.; Asprone, D.; Fenu, L.; & Prota, A. Experimental characterization of Italian composite adobe bricks reinforced with straw fibers. Composite Structures 122 (2015) 300-307.

Rahim, M.; Douzane, O.; Le, A.T.; Promis, G.; & Langlet, T. Characterization and comparison of hygric properties of rape straw concrete and hemp concrete. Construction and Building Materials 102 (2016) 679-687.

Rashad, A. Cementitious materials and agricultural wastes as natural fine aggregate replacement in conventional mortar and concrete. Journal of Building Engineering 5 (2016) 119-141.

Chern, J.C.; & Young, C.H. Compressive creep and shrinkage of steel fibre reinforced concrete. The International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete 11 4 (1989) 205-214.

Beddar, M.; & Belagraa, L. Influence of fibrous waste addition on the shrinkage of mortars. Asian journal of civil engineering 4 1 (2003) 65-72.

Jonas, C. Shrinkage cracking of steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete overlays Test methods and theoretical modeling. Doctoral thesis, Lulea University of Technology (2006) 261.

Bainbridge, D.A. Houses of straw. Resource Engineering and Technology 12 4 (2005) 7-8.

Desborough, N.; & Samant, S. Research and Solutions: Is Straw a Viable Building Material for Housing in the United Kingdom?. Sustainability: The Journal of Record 2 6 (2009) 368-374.

Yang, H.S.; Kim, D.J.; & Kim, H.J. Rice straw–wood particle composite for sound absorbing wooden construction materials. Bioresource Technology 86 2 (2003) 117-121.

Soroushian, P.; Aouadi, F.; Chowdhury, H.; Nossoni, A.; & Sarwar, G. Cement-bonded straw board subjected to accelerated processing. Cement and Concrete Composites 26 7 (2004) 797-802.

Bouhicha, M.; Aouissi, F.; & Kenai, S. Performance of composite soil reinforced with barley straw. Cement and Concrete Composites 27 5 (2005) 617-621.

Li, Z.; Wang, X.; & Wang, L. Properties of hemp fibre reinforced concrete composites. Composites part A: applied science and manufacturing 37 3 (2006) 497-505.

Ashour, T.; Wieland, H.; Georg, H.; Bockisch, F.J.; & Wu, W. The influence of natural reinforcement fibres on insulation values of earth plaster for straw bale buildings. Materials & Design 31 10 (2010) 4676-4685.

Nozahic, V.; Amziane, S.; Torrent, G.; Saïdi, K.; & De Baynast, H. Design of green concrete made of plant-derived aggregates and a pumice–lime binder. Cement and Concrete Composites 34 2 (2012) 231-241.

Merta, I.; & Tschegg, E.K. Fracture energy of natural fibre reinforced concrete. Construction and Building Materials 40 (2013) 991-997.

Belhadj, B.; Bederina, M.; Makhloufi, Z.; Goullieux, A.; & Quéneudec, M. Study of the thermal performances of an exterior wall of barley straw sand concrete in an arid environment. Energy and Buildings 87 (2015) 166-175.

Aksoğan, O.; Binici, H.; & Ortlek, E. Durability of concrete made by partial replacement of fine aggregate by colemanite and barite and cement by ashes of corn stalk, wheat straw and sunflower stalk ashes. Construction and Building Materials 106 (2016) 253-263.

Al Rim, K.; Ledhem, A.; & Quéneudec, M. -t'Kint de Roodenbeke. Etude des paramètres de fabrication d'un béton de bois à matrice argileuse. Materials and Structures 29 8 (1996) 514-518.

Ledhem, A. Contribution to the study of a wood concrete. Development of a process for minimizing the dimensional variations of a clay-cement-wood composite. Doctoral thesis, National Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon, France. (1997) (In French).

Eustafievici, M.; Muntean, O.; & Muntean, M. Influence of the wood waste characteristics and its chemical treatment on the composites properties. In NOCMAT/3-Vietnam, International Conference on Non-conventional Materials and Technologies (2002) 107-112.

Pehanich, J.L.; Blankenhorn, P.R.; & Silsbee, M.R. Wood fiber surface treatment level effects on selected mechanical properties of wood fiber–cement composites. Cement and Concrete Research 34 1 (2004) 59-65.

Bederina, M. Mechanical and physical characterization of sand concrete based on wood waste. Doctoral thesis, University of Laghouat, Algeria. (2007) (In French).

Belhadj, B. Improved thermo-physical properties of lightweight sand concrete with wood shavings in arid environments: Case of the city of Laghouat. Memory of Magister, University of Laghouat, Algeria. (2007) (In French).

Mouloud, M. Development and characterization of a composite material based on diss fibers in the manufacture of masonry. Doctoral thesis, University of Annaba, Algeria. (2007) (In French).

Edeerozey, A.M.; Akil, H.M.; Azhar, A.B.; & Ariffin, M.Z. Chemical modification of kenaf fibers. Materials Letters 61 10 (2007) 2023-2025.

Herrera-Franco, P.; & Valadez-Gonzalez, A. A study of the mechanical properties of short natural-fiber reinforced composites. Composites Part B: Engineering 36 8 (2005) 597-608.

Bederina, M.; Khenfer, M.M.; Dheilly, R.M.; & Quéneudec, M. Reuse of local sand: effect of limestone filler proportion on the rheological and mechanical properties of different sand concretes. Cement and concrete research 35 6 (2005) 1172-1179.

National Press of School of Bridges and Roads. Béton de sable-Caractéristiques et pratiques SABLOCRETE. Sand concrete-Characteristics and use practices. Presses of bridges, Paris, France (1994) 236.

Chauvin, J.J.; Grimaldi, G. Les bétons de sable. Bulletin de liaison Laboratoires des Ponts et Chaussées (LCPC) 157 1988) 9-15.

Amuthakkannan, P.; Manikandan, V.; Jappes, J.W.; & Uthayakumar, M. Effect of fibre length and fibre content on mechanical properties of short basalt fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites. Materials Physics and Mechanics 16 (2013) 107-117.

Godin, B.; Ghysel, F.; Agneessens, R.; Schmit, T.; Gofflot, S.; Lamaudière, S.; Sinnaeve, G.; Goffart, J.P.; Gerin, P.A.; Stilmant, D.; & Delcarte, J. Détermination de la cellulose, des hémicelluloses, de la lignine et des cendres dans diverses cultures lignocellulosiques dédiées à la production de bioéthanol de deuxième génération/Cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and ash contents in various lignocellulosic crops for second generation bioethanol production. Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement 14 (2010) 549.

Gustavsson, M.; Karawacki, E.; Gustafsson, S.E. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat of thin samples from transient measurements with hot disk sensors. Review of Scientific Instruments 65 12 (1994) 3856-3859.


  • There are currently no refbacks.