Synthesis of Graphene oxide OG by recycling graphite from the rods of electrical storage devices: application to the retention of Hg2+ in aquatic environments

M. Kadari, M. Makhlouf, H. Soltani, R. Rouighi, M. Kaid


Seen the important utility of Graphene Oxide (OG) in various fields; This prestigious material has been synthesized by following the hummer method modified by recycling graphite rods from electrical storage devices and characterized by different characterization methods such as: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (DRX), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to be able to see the structure and morphology of the synthesized material. The study of the elimination of mercuric ions (Hg2+) by OG was verified by a parametric, a thermodynamic and a kinetic study. The results showed that this adsorption is exothermic, spontaneous with an order between the adsorbent and the adsorbate and that the adsorption process follows the Langmuir model with pseudo-second-order kinetics. The best yield in this study was 75 % under the optimal conditions.

Full Text:



Abedin, Md, A.; Collins, A. E.; Habiba, U.; Shaw, R. Climate Change, Water Scarcity, and Health Adaptation in Southwestern Coastal Bangladesh ; International Journal of Disaster Risk Science; 10 (2019) 28‑42

Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Döll, P. Will groundwater ease freshwater stress under climate change? ; Hydrological Sciences Journal; 54 (2009) 665‑675

Aastrup, M.; Johnson, J.; Bringmark, E.; Bringmark, I.; Iverfeldt, Å. Occurence and transport of mercury within a small catchment area ; Water, Air, and Soil Pollution; 56 (1991) 155‑167

Berg, T.; Aspmo, K.; Steinnes, E. Transport of Hg from Atmospheric mercury depletion events to the mainland of Norway and its possible influence on Hg deposition ; Geophysical Research Letters.; 35 (2008) L09802

Ryan, F.; Lepak; Runsheng, Y.; David, P.; Krabbenhoft; Jacob, M.; Ogorek; John, F.; DeWild; Thomas, M.; Holsen; James, P.; Hurley. Use of Stable Isotope Signatures to Determine Mercury Sources in the Great Lakes , Environmental Science & Technology Letters; 2 (2015) 335‑341.

Herva, J,; Meskus, E. Upgrading the Chemical Precipitation Process Using a Fixed Film Biological Reactor: A Case Study of the Taskila Plant of Oulu, Finland ; Chemical Water and Wastewater Treatment; (1998) 255‑265.

Wang, F.; Yu, X.; Maofa, Ge.; Sujun, Wu.; Guan, J.; Tang, J.; Xiao, W.; Robert, O.; Ritchie .Facile self-assembly synthesis of γ-Fe2O3 /graphene oxide for enhanced photo-Fenton reaction , Environmental Pollution, 248 (2019) 229‑237.

Soldatov, V. S.; Elinson, I. S.; Shunkevich, A. A.; Pawlowski, L.; Wasag, H. Air Pollution Control with Fibrous Ion Exchangers , Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment (1996) 55‑66.

Drogui, P.; Elmaleh, S.; Rumeau, M.; Bernard, C.; Rambaud, A. Hydrogen peroxide production by water electrolysis: Application to disinfection, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 31 (2001) 877‑882

Ritter, J. A.; Ebner, A. D. State‐of‐the‐Art Adsorption and Membrane Separation Processes for Hydrogen Production in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries , Separation Science and Technology, 42 (2007) 1123‑1193

Zahoor, M.; Mahramanlioglu, M. Removal of Phenolic Substances from Water by Adsorption and Adsorption-Ultrafiltration , Separation Science and Technology, 46 (2011) 1482‑1494.

Kadari, M.; Kaid, M.; Ben Ali, M.; Villemin, D. Selective study of elimination of Cd (II) and Pb (II) from aqueous solution by novel hybrid material , Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, 5 (2017) 149‑157

Khan, S. J.; Murchland, D.; Rhodes, M.; Waite, T. D. Management of Concentrated Waste Streams from High-Pressure Membrane Water Treatment Systems , Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 39 (2009) 367‑415.

Grajek, H.; Witkiewicz, J, Jonik.; Wawer, T.; Purchała, M. Applications of Graphene and Its Derivatives in Chemical Analysis , Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 50 (2020) 445‑471

Ma, Y.; Kou, Y.; Jin, S.; Shao, W.; Li, X. Adsorption of Hg(II) in aqueous solution by magnetic graphene oxide grafted polymaleicamide dendrimer nanohybrids , Separation Science and Technology, 54 (2019) 2409‑2417.

Naz, A.; Kausar, A.; Siddiq, M. Influence of Graphite Filler on Physicochemical Characteristics of Polymer/Graphite Composites: A Review , Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 55 (2016) 604‑625.

Hummers, W. S.; Offeman, R. E. Preparation of Graphitic Oxide , Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80 (1958) 1339‑1339.

Shao, G.; Lu, Y.; Wu, F.; Yang, C.; Zeng, F.; Wu, Q. Graphene oxide: the mechanisms of oxidation and exfoliation , Journal of Materials Science, 47 (2012) 4400‑4409

Stankovich, S.; Dikin, D.; Piner, D.; Kohlhaas, A.; Kleinhammes, A.; Yuanyuan, J.; Wu, Y.; Nguyen, T.; Ruoff, S. Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide , Carbon, 45 (2007) 1558‑1565

Chua, K.; Sofer, Z.; Pumera, M. Graphite Oxides: Effects of Permanganate and Chlorate Oxidants on the Oxygen Composition , Chemistry - A European Journal, 18 (2012) 13453‑13459

Fachina, J.; de Andrade, B.; Guerra, S.; dos Santos, T.; Bergamasco, R.; Vieira, S. Graphene oxide functionalized with cobalt ferrites applied to the removal of bisphenol A: ionic study, reuse capacity and desorption kinetics , Environmental Technology, (2020) 1‑17

Phatthanakittiphong, T.; Seo, G. Characteristic Evaluation of Graphene Oxide for Bisphenol A Adsorption in Aqueous Solution , Nanomaterials, 6 (2016) 128

Huang, X,; Qi, X.; Boey, F.; Zhang, H. Graphene-based composites », Chemical Society Reviews., 41 (2012) 666‑686

Kadari, M.; Kaid, M.; Ben Ali, M.; Villemin, D. The intercalation of Zn/Al-HDL by the diamino-dodecylphosphonic acid: synthesis and properties of adsorption of basic fuchsine , Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, 4 (2016) 148‑157

Goswami, A.; Purkait, M. Kinetic and Equilibrium Study for the Fluoride Adsorption using Pyrophyllite , Separation Science and Technology, 46 (2011) 1797‑1807

Kara, A.; Demirbel, E. Physicochemical Parameters of Cu(II) Ions Adsorption from Aqueous Solution by Magnetic-Poly(divinylbenzene-n-vinylimidazole) Microbeads , Separation Science and Technology, 47 (2012) 709‑722

Emami, A.; Rahbar-Kelishami, A. Zinc and nickel adsorption onto a low-cost mineral adsorbent: kinetic, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies , Desalination and Water Treatment, 57 (2016) 21881‑21892

Kamari, A.; Ngah, W. Adsorption of Cu(II) and Cr(VI) onto Treated Shorea dasyphylla Bark: Isotherm, Kinetics, and Thermodynamic Studies , Separation Science and Technology, 45 (2010) 486‑496.

Yousef, A.; Morsy, A.; Hagag, S. Uranium ions adsorption from acid leach liquor using acid cured phosphate rock: kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies , Separation Science and Technology, 55 (2020) 648‑657.


  • There are currently no refbacks.