Physical and thermal properties of lightweight self-compacting mortar made with recycled walnut shells as fine agreggrates

Dj. Boukhelkhal, M. Guendouz, Z. Triki


The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of recycling Walnut Shell wastes (WS) as fine aggregates in lightweight self-compacting mortar (SCM). In the experimental procedure, the natural sand was partially replaced by the WS waste at various replacement ratios (0; 10; 20; 30 and 40%). The thermal conductivity and some physic-mechanical properties of the SCM containing WS were studied and compared with control SCM (CSCM). The test results showed that, depending on the amount of WS aggregate, unit weight and thermal conductivity of concrete were reduced and the capillary water absorption was increased with the use of WS aggregates and for all the lightweight SCMs considered. Moreover, reductions in mechanical properties of concretes have been obtained with decreasing concrete unit weights. In addition, substitution ratio of 30% was found to be the optimum volume ratio of WS for getting lightweight structural SCM with appropriate fresh and hardened properties.

Full Text:



Chinnu, S.N.; Minnu, S.N.; Bahurudeen, A. ; Senthilkumar, R. Reuse of industrial and agricultural by-products as pozzolan and aggregates in lightweight concrete. Construction and Building Materials 302 (2021) 124172.

Guendouz, M.; Boukhelkhal. Dj. Physical and mechanical properties of cement mortar made with brick waste. MATEC Web of Conferences. 149 (2018) pp. 01077.

Boukhelkhal, Dj.; Boukendakdji, O.; Kenai, S.; Kadri, E.H. Combined effect of mineral admixture and curing temperature on mechanical behavior and porosity of SCC.Adv. Conc. Const. 6 (1) (2018) 69-85.

Okamura, H.; Maekawa, K.; Ozawa, K. High performance concrete. 1st ed. Tokyo: Gihoudou Pub,1993.

Naji Hilal, N.; Freeh Sahab, M.; Taghreed, K.M. Fresh and hardened properties of lightweight self-compacting concrete containing walnut shells as coarse aggregate. J. King Saud Univ, Eng. Scie. 33(5) (2021) 364-372.

Karamloo, M.; Mazloom, M.; Payganeh, G. Effect of size on nominal strength of self-compacting lightweight concrete and self-compacting normal weight concrete: A stress-based approach. Materials Today Communications 13 (2017) 36–45.

Nahhab, A.H.; Ketab, A.K. Influence of content and maximum size of light expanded clay aggregate on the fresh, strength, and durability properties of self-compacting lightweight concrete reinforced with micro steel fibers. Construction and Building Materials 233 (2020) 117922.

Ting, T.Z.H.; Rahman, M.E.; Lau, H.H.; Ting M.Z.Y. Recent development and perspective of lightweight aggregates based self-compacting concrete. Construction and Building Materials 201 (2019) 763–777

Karthika, V.; Awoyera, P.O.; Akinwumi, I.I.; Gobinath, R.; Gunasekaran, R.; Lokesh, N. Structural properties of lightweight self-compacting concrete made with pumice stone and mineral admixture. Romanian Journal of Materials, 48(2) (2018) 208 -213.

Guendouz, M.; Boukhelkhal, Dj. Properties of fowable sand concrete containing ceramic wastes. J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 33 (24) (2019) 2661-2683.

Guendouz, M.; Boukhelkhal, Dj.; Bourdot, A. Recycling of Floor Tile Waste as Fine Aggregate in Flowable Sand Concrete. Advances in Green Energies and Materials Technology. Springer Proceedings in Energy. Springer, Singapore, 2021.

Tasdemir, C.; Sengul, O.; Tasdemir, M.A. A comparative study on the thermal conductivities and mechanical properties of lightweight concretes. Energy and Buildings 151 (2017) 469–475.

Guendouz, M.; Debieb, F.; Boukendakdji, O.; Kadri, E.H.; Bentchikou, M.; Soualhi, H. Use of plastic waste in sand concrete. J. Mater. Env. Sci. 7 (2) (2016) 382-389.

Ryms, M.; Januszewicz, K.; Haustein, E.; Kazimierski, P.; Lewandowski, W.M. Thermal properties of a cement composite containing phase change materials (PCMs) with post-pyrolytic char obtained from spent tyres as a carrier, Energy, Volume 239, Part A, 2022, 121936, ISSN 0360-5442,

Rosales, J.; Cabrera, M.; Lopez-Alonso, M.; Díaz-López, J.L.; Francisco, A. 9 - Specialized concrete made of processed biomass ash: lightweight, self-compacting, and geopolymeric concrete, Editor(s): Paul O. Awoyera, Carlos Thomas, Mehmet Serkan Kirgiz, In Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering, The Structural Integrity of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Produced with Fillers and Pozzolans, Woodhead Publishing, 2022, Pages 199-239, ISBN 9780128241059,

Zwicky, D. Mechanical properties of organic-based lightweight concretes and their impact on economic and ecological performances, Construction and Building Materials 245 (2020) 118413.

Kareem, M.A.; Raheem, A.A.; Oriola, K.O.; Abdulwahab, R. A. review on application of oil palm shell as aggregate in concrete - Towards realising a pollution-free environment and sustainable concrete, Environmental Challenges 8 (2022) 100531

Nagaratnam, B.H.; Rahman,M.E.A. K.; Mirasa, M.; Mannan, A.; Lame, S.O. Workability and heat of hydration of self-compacting concrete incorporating agro-industrial waste. Journal of Cleaner Production 112 (2016) 882-894.

Guendouz, M; Boukhelkha, Dj. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties of Crushed Sand Concrete containing Rubber MATEC Web of Conferences, 149, 01076 (2018).

Guendouz, M.; Boukhelkhal, Dj.; Bourdot, A.; Babachikh, O.; Hamadouche, A. The efect of ceramic wastes on physical and mechanical properties of eco-friendly fowable sand concrete Ceramic Materials. IntechOpen. 10, 2 (2020).

Moayedi, H.; Aghel, B.; Abdullahi, M.M.; Nguyen, H.; Rashid, A.S.A. Applications of rice husk ash as green and sustainable biomass, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 237, 2019, 117851, ISSN 0959-6526,

Katare, V.D.; Madurwar, M.V.; Raut, S. Agro-Industrial Waste as a Cementitious Binder for Sustainable Concrete: An Overview, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020, S. K. Ghosh (ed.), Sustainable Waste Management: Policies and Case Studies,

Odeyemi, S.O.; Abdulwahab, R.; Giwa, Z.T.; Anifowose, M.A.; Odeyemi, O.T.; Ezenweani, C.F. Effect of Combining Maize Straw and Palm Oil Fuel Ashes in Concrete as Partial Cement Replacement in Compression, Trends Sci. 2021; 18(19): 29

Hekimoglu, G.; Sarı, A.; Kar, T.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K.; Tyagi, V.V.; Sharma, R.K.; Al-Ahmed, A.; Al-Sulaiman, F. A.; Saleh, T.A. Walnut shell derived bio-carbon/methyl palmitate as novel composite phase change material with enhanced thermal energy storage properties, Journal of Energy Storage 35 (2021) 102288.

Jannat, N.; Al-Mufti, R.L.; Hussien, A.; Abdullah, B.; Cotgrave, A. Utilisation of nut shell wastes in brick, mortar and concrete: A review, Construction and Building Materials 293 (2021) 123546.

Venkatesan, B.; Lijina, V.J.; Kannan, V.; Dhevasenaa, P.R. Partial replacement of fine aggregate by steel slag and coarse aggregate by walnut shell in concrete, Materials Today: Proceedings 37 (2021) 1761–1766.

Cheng, W.; Liu, G.; Chen, L. Appl. Sci. 7(345) (2017) 1–19.

Kamal, I.; Sherwani, A.F.; Ali, A.; Khalid, A.; Saadi, L.; Harbi, A. Walnut Shell for Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete: Modeling and Optimization, Journal of Civil Engineering Research 7 (4) (2017) 109–119,

Shahab, H.M.; Anwar, A.; Samarul, H.; Mohd, A. Cost optimization of concrete by replacing fine aggregate with walnut shell powder.Int. J. Civil Eng. Technol. 8(3) (2017) 82–89.

EFNARC recommandantions, EFNARC Edition. The European guidelines for self-compacting concrete, Specification, Production and use EFNARC Edition. United Kingdom, 2002 p. 63.

Nwofor, T. C.; Sule, S. Stability of groundnut shell ash (GSA)/Ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete in Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2012, 3(4), 2283–2287.

Boukhelkhal, Dj.; Guendouz, M.; Bourdot, A.; Cheriet, H.; Messaoudi, K. Elaboration of bio-based building materials made from recycled olive core. MRS Energ. &Sustb. 8 (2021) 98–109.

Alsalami, Z.H.A. Study the effect of partially replacement sand by waste pistachio shells in cement mortar, Appl. Adhes. Sci. 5 (1) (2017) 1–12,

Guendouz, M,; Boukhelkhal, Dj. Properties of dune sand concrete containing cofee waste MATEC Web of Conf. 149 (2018) 01039.

Belhadj, B.; Bederina, M.; Montrelay, N.; J. Houessou, M. Quéneudec. Effect of substitution of

wood shavings by barley straws on the physico-mechanical properties of lightweight sand concrete. Constr. Build. Mater. 66 (2014) 247–258.

Neville, A.M.; Brooks, J.J. Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd., Printed in Malaysia, PP(C TP), 2008.

Sutcu, M.; Ozturk, S.; Yalamac, E.; Gencel, O. Effect of olive mill waste addition on the properties of porous fired clay bricks using Taguchi method. J. Envir. Manag. 181 (2016) 185–192.

Belhadj, B.; Bederina, M.; Benguettache, K. Queneudec. M. Effect of the type of sand on the fracture and mechanical properties of sand concrete. Adv. Concr. Cons. 2(1) (2014) 13–27.

Korjenic, A.; Petranek, V.; Zach, J.; Hroudova. Development and performance evaluation of natural thermal-insulation materials composed of renewable resources. J. Energy.Build.43 (2011) 2518-2523.

Canan, T.; Ozkan, S.; Mehmet, A.T. A comparative study on the thermal conductivities and mechanicalproperties of lightweight concretes. Energy and Build. 151 (2017) 469–475.

Barreca, F.; Fichera, C.R. Energy Build. 62 (2013) 507–513.

Aslam, M.; Shafigh, P.; Nomeli, M.A.; Jumaat, M.Z. Manufacturing of high-strength lightweight aggregate concrete using blended coarse lightweight aggregates J. Build. Engineering 13 (2017) 53–62.

Ealias, A. M.; Rajeena, A. P.; Sivadutt, S.; John, L.; Paul, A. Improvement of Strength of Concrete with Partial Replacement Of Course Aggregate With Coconut Shell and Coir Fibres. Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. 11 (2014) 16-24.


  • There are currently no refbacks.