Formulation optimization and physicochemical properties prediction of E10 fuel

K. Kirouani, D. El Hadi, R. Chemini, F. Hannane


Abstract: Nowadays, large range of fuels supplied has diverse composition. To optimize the combustion process, engine performance and to meet EPA emissions standards, the knowledge of gasoline properties should be obtained in real time.  Evaluation and prediction of physicochemical parameters such as octane numbers and densities still play an essential role in the quality control of gasoline and similar fuels. Their measurements, according to standard ASTM procedures are time and work consuming and demand specific equipment’s. This study presents an alternative approach based on the use of Design of Experiments (DOE) method and its application for E10 fuel formulation optimization and then the prediction of the principal gasoline properties such as octane number and density using mathematical models. The optimization of gasoline composition is performed by the implementation of a mixing plan with different gasoline refinery blending stocks (toluene, reformate, naphtha, heavy reformate, pentane) and ethanol, with 10% in volume. The variation influence of each component proportion in the mixture, on the two essential properties of gasoline as indicated above, has been studied with comparison to the commercial gasoline, considered as a base line. We reveal a strong correlation between these properties and the gasoline blend composition. Blend stocks and formulated E10 fuel samples, previously tested according to standard methods, were used to build mathematical models, which were evaluated by experimental validation. The obtained root mean square prediction differences (RMSPD) are respectively 0.64% and 0.33% for RON and density. These results suggest that our models can be used to predict different physicochemical properties, furthermore, the obtained E10 fuels found to have the same properties as commercials gasoline.

Full Text:



Sakaguchi, T. Influence of diffusion of fuel-efficient motor vehicles on gasoline demand for individual user owned passenger cars. Energy Policy 28 (2000) 895-903.

Nagai, K.; Seko, T. Trends of motor fuel quality in Japan. Japan Society Of Automotive Engineers Reviw 21 (2000) 457–62.


eev, A.; Zubtsov, M.; Lucklum, R. Octane number determination of gasoline with a phononic crystal sensor. Procedia Engineering 47 (2012) 1382-1385.

TaibIskandar, M.; How Heoy, G. Part-load performance and emissions of a spark ignition engine fueled with RON95 and RON97 gasoline: Technical viewpoint on Malaysia’s fuel price debate. Energy Conversion and Management 88 (2014) 928-935.

Wei-Dong, H.; Rong-Hong, C.; Tsung-Lin, W.; Ta-Hui, L. Engine performance and pollutant emission of an SI engine using ethanol–gasoline blended fuels. Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 403-410.

Knop, V.; Loos, M.; Pera, C.; Jeuland, N. A linear-by-mole blending rule for octane numbers of n-heptane/iso octane/ toluene mixtures. Fuel 115 (2014) 666-673.

Pera, C.; Knop, V. Methodology to define gasoline surrogates dedicated to auto ignition in engines. Fuel 96 (2012) 59-69.

Takeshita, EV.; Rezende, RVP.; Guelli, U de Souza SMA. ; Ulson de Souza, AA. Influence of solvent addition on the physicochemical properties of Brazilian gasoline. Fuel 87 (2008) 2168.

Poulopoulos, SG.; Samaras, DP. ; Philippopoulos, CJ. Regulated and unregulated emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on ethanol–containing fuels. Atmospheric Environment. 35 (2001) 4399-4406.

Zerves, E.; Montagne, X.; Lahaye, J. Emission of alcohols and carbonyl compounds from a spark ignition engine: influence of fuel and air/fuel equivalence ratio. Environment Sciences Technology. 36 (2002) 2414-2421.

Li-Wei, Jia.; Mei-Qing, Shen.;Jun, Wang.;Man-Qun Lin. Influence of ethanol–gasoline blended fuel on emission characteristics from a four-stroke motorcycle engine.Journal of Hazardous Materials A123 (2005) 29–34.

Lanzer, T.; Von-Meien, OF.; Yamamoto, CI. A predictive thermodynamic model for the Brazilian gasoline. Fuel 84 (2005) 1099-04.

Pasadakis, N.; Sourligas, S.; Foteinopoulos, C. Prediction of the distillation profile and cold properties of diesel fuels using mid-IR spectroscopy and neural networks. Fuel 85 (2006) 1131-7.

Pasadakis, N.; Gaganis, V.; Foteinopoulos, C. Octane number prediction for gasoline blends. Fuel Processing Technology. 87 (2006) 505-9.

He, BQ.; Wang, JX.; Hao, JM.; Yan, XG.; Xiao, JH. A study on emission characteristics of an EFI engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels. Atmospheric Environment. 37 (2003) 949-57.

Heywood, JB. Internal combustion engine fundamentals. New York: McGraw- Hill, Inc. (1988).

Hunwartzen, I. SAE Technical Paper 820002 (1982).

In, Linstrom.; PJ, Mallard.; WG, editors. NIST chemistry webbook, NIST standard reference database number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD .

Wu, CW.; Chen, RH.; Pu, JY. ; Lin, TH. The influence of air–fuel ratio on engine performance and pollutant emission of an SI engine using ethanol–gasoline blended fuels. Atmospheric Environment. 38 (2004) 7093-100.

Zhang, RD.; He, H.; Shi, XY.; Zhang, CB.; He, BQ.; Wang, JX. Preparation and emission characteristics of ethanol–diesel fuel blends. Journal of Environment Sciences. 16 (2004) 793-796.

Roger, M.; Calle, N.; Barbro, A. Emissions of aldehydes and ketones from a two-stroke engine using ethanol and ethanol–blended gasoline as fuel. Environment Sciences Technology. 36 (2002) 1656-1664.

Can, O.; Celikten, I.; Usta, N. Effects of ethanol addition on performance and emissions of a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine running at different injection pressures. Energy Conversion and Management. 45 (2004) 2429-2440.

Box, GEP.; Hunter, W.; Hunter, JS. Statistics for Experimenters. New York Wiley (1978).

Derringer, G.; Suich, R. Simultaneous optmization of several response variables. Journal of Quality Technology.12 (1980) 214-219.

Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter (2008) ASTM D4052.

Standard Test Method for Research Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine. Fuel (2008) ASTM D2699.

Teixeira, LSG.; Guimarães, PRB.; Pontes, LAM.; Almeida, SQ.; Assis, JCR.; Viana, RF. Studies on the effects of solvents on the physicochemical properties of automotive gasoline. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal. (2001) 1-6.

Anderson, JE.; Kramer, U. ; Mueller, SA. ; Wallington, TJ. Octane numbers of ethanol and methanol-gasoline blends estimated from molar concentrations. Energy Fuels 24 (2010) 6576–85.


  • There are currently no refbacks.